Archive for control society

Laughter in Deleuze

Posted in Body and Affect, Deleuze, Foucault, Nietzsche with tags , , , , , , on May 17, 2012 by immanentterrain2

One of my favorite quotations from all of the media studies program—and I can’t put my finger on why, precisely, but I often find its final four words bouncing into my thoughts unannounced—comes from Adorno and Horkheimer’s Dialectic of Enlightenment: “The culture industry replaces pain, which is present in ecstasy no less than in asceticism, with jovial denial” (112). Reading Deleuze, I’ve encountered at least two other moments where laughter comes into play, and not the pathetic laughter of the denial of the dominated, but another form of unexpected laugher, bizarre good humor given the circumstances.

In the chapter of Deleuze’s book on Foucault about Discipline and Punish, that seminal and terrifying book on the surveilling Panopticon and the theater of punishment, Deleuze opens nearly sadistically: “The Divine Comedy of punishment means we can retain the basic right to collapse in fits of laughter in the face of a dazzling array of perverse inventions, cynical discourses and meticulous horrors. A whole chain of phenomena, from anti-masturbation machines for children to the mechanics of prison for adults, sets off an unexpected laughter which shame, suffering or death cannot silence” (23). Expressing laughter seems to suggest an interior that may be affected by outside events but that will not be fully subsumed by them. Even darker, though resilient, is how Deleuze calls this laughter “a great joy which is not the ambivalent joy of hatred, but the joy of wanting to destroy whatever mutilates life” (23).

Another example comes in “Nomadic Thought,” in which Deleuze attributes Nietzsche’s unlikely but essential laughter to the unbounded joy of revolution in the face of atrocity. Laughter is positive and creative, an uncontrollable escape from restraints of imposed logic and morality. Laughing at the traumatic, as Deleuze prescribes for readers of Foucault, at least flies in the face of a morality instated by transcendence. There is a war between those who seek to control and those who seek to liberate action and maximize potential for individuals to enter into productive and creative relations that have not been imposed upon them. And on the fighting side there is still a path to happiness, often found in subversiveness of minor literature. The philosophers championed by media studies tend not to fall into despair; no matter how dire their findings on control societies or bodily torture, something keeps them bouncing up. Whether we’re being denied autonomy, as in Adorno, or coming “face to face with something sickening, ignoble, disgusting,” as Deleuze describes the provocation for Nietzsche’s laughter in “Nomadic Thought” (258), there’s always something to laugh about. Isn’t that funny?

-Duncan Cooper

Deleuze, Gilles, and Seán Hand. Foucault. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1988.

Deleuze, Gilles. “Nomadic Thought.” Desert Islands and Other Texts, 1953-1974. Ed. David Lapoujade. Trans. Michael Taormina. Los Angeles, CA: Semiotext(e), 2004.

Horkheimer, Max, and Theodor W. Adorno. Dialectic of Enlightenment. New York: Continuum Pub., 1972.

Control in Information Technology Industry Work-spaces

Posted in Deleuze, Foucault with tags , , , on May 12, 2012 by immanentterrain2

In “Postscript on Control Societies” [1], Deleuze argues that the accumulation of information and the processing capabilities of digital computers has made possible a new form of exercising power. In this new method of control,  the patterns of behaviour created by masses is used to create individuated control. Though it is possible to implement such mechanisms without high tech systems (for example it is imaginable to implement floating exchange rate system without digital processing) but information processing systems are the most cost effective way of realizing them. Deleuze predicts a switch from disciplinary mechanisms into control systems even in the very examples of disciplinary systems such as school and work-space. It is ironic to see the forerunner industry which has embraced this transition away from disciplinary systems is information technology industry.

The Trial by Orson Welles (adapted from Franz Kafka’s novel) 1962

All the instances of discipline, such as cubicle and strict reporting, are removed from workspace. Even the hostility between the employees created by bonus mechanism, as described by Deleuze, has been turned into a very collaborative cooperation. It seems as if Deleuze predictions were wrong and new information industry has been able to create a very humane work environment, at least for its employees, to create control mechanism for those outside (including themselves out of work environment).

But if we look more closely we can see that the same exact employees have the record of working overtime and the same companies have been able to make the most profit out of employees work and distribute this profit very unfairly between the owners and employees.
Other than psychological reasons that has enabled such companies to have employees and society accept these facts without objecting to them by being more ‘humane’ I would argue that there are more advanced control systems, as described by Deleuze, implemented within such workspaces. One of them being the open source community working side by side with these companies and their mutual relations.

Open source community has been praised as the realization of the democratic and collaborative way of development: The altruism of members to share their achievements with others for the benefit of the entire community. Though I don’t think that wasn’t the intention and motivation behind the open source community but I believe the same networked community enables companies to implement continuous learning and assessment in the work environment more cost effectively.

The large scale of open source development has caused a huge proliferation in the possibilities of developing code that is way beyond the learning ability of individuals. If in the 80’s and early 90’s a software engineer had to update his knowledge every few years, now a programmer has to constantly learn new tools, libraries and programming languages every day and every hour to keep up with the industry. Creation of this amount of learning material would have not been possible without open source community. It is imaginable to think that providing study material for this continuous learning is crowed sourced to be provided by open source software development community (as it is the case with Wikipedia).
This constant learning has created an integrated school-factory environment with continuous learning and assessment without limit or end, as Deleuze predicted.

Moreover working on a open source source project in the work environment, as many employees do, creates a modularization of work into personal achievement. The employee receives the consequences of the success of the project more directly than the bonus mechanism and obviously it is more cost effective for the company. In this case the assessment is done not by the higher level managers but by the other members of community, distributively and continuously. If we add into account the huge number of developers working on small open source project in addition to large, well known and stable open source projects, it is not hard to realize that how the interest of the network of user community in using that specific project determines the failure or success of the project, and consequently fame and more opportunities for its contributors.

[1] Deleuze, Gilles. Negotiations, 1972-1990. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995.pp. 177-182

Cruise Ships, Smooth and Striated Space, and Control Societies

Posted in Deleuze, Foucault with tags , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2012 by immanentterrain2

Deleuze: “The Ocean, the Unlimited, first plays the role of an encompassing element, and tends to become a horizon: the earth is thus surrounded, globalized, “grounded” by this element, which holds it in immobile equilibrium and makes Form possible. Then to the extent that the encompassing element itself appears at the center of the earth, it assumes a second role, that of casting into the loathsome deep, the abode of the dead, anything smooth or nonmeasured that may have remained.” (The Smooth and the Striated, 495)

In the chapter of Allan Sekula’s Dismal Science about his 2002 project Fish Story, Sekula talks about how major newspapers no longer cover the sea besides “stories of disaster, war and exodus,” a journalistic approach that compresses the sea into a “weirdly blasé and episodic faux-sublimity.” But his writing can also be creatively misread to describe voyages on cruise ships: “The sea is the site of intermittent horrors and extraordinary but tried expenditures of energy, quite distinct form the dramas of everyday life” (53). Doesn’t this sound a bit like Deleuze’s maritime model of smooth and striated space, where man intervenes with striation to distance himself from the threat of the sea’s formlessness?

Both smooth and striated space can apply to the space of a cruise ship. “In striated space, lines or trajectories tend to be subordinated to points: one goes from one point to another,” which can be understood as the cruise ship’s ports as it travels from Miami to Montego Bay, so the free space of the ocean is recomposed as a series of destinations; “In the smooth, it is the opposite: the points are subordinated to the trajectory,” such that Miami and Montego play out as subordinate to a vector of relaxation, more like exterior stopovers on an internal journey: leaving the rhythm of the work week, falling into the pace of the waves and the affects of this comfort economy (A Thousand Plateaus, 478). Does the map of a patron’s cruise require the map of a child? The memory isn’t the journey of the ship’s path, but the superimposed onboard journey of the patron, criss-crossing to between deck pools, margaritas and periods of relaxation (or from hangovers to toilets and nausea). Is it possible for this to be a creative space for the usually work-obsessed traveler, letting them envision new ways to live? On the ideal cruise, wouldn’t the experience of time trend toward concrete duration?

Smooth in some ways, maybe, but the ship’s rigidly plotted course through the ocean and the boat’s compartmentalization (above all the secreting away of a distinctly not-on-vacation support staff) amount to a colossal weight of consumerism lumbering between ports. The cruise is so obviously enormously striated I’m reminded (after first being reminded of Adorno’s great line, “Entertainment is the prolongation of work under late capitalism” [Dialectic of Enlightenment, 109]) of another perspective from Deleuze, on control societies. In “Postscript on Control Societies,” Deleuze writes: “Control is short-term and rapidly shifting, but at the same time continuous and unbounded” (181). There seems to be a hint of striated and smooth in there. The patron’s pathways on a cruise, both exterior and interior, have been delimited in advance just like any consumer-oriented sedative, made appealing precisely as a sort of freedom from the routine—from the scheduled work week, from children, from dress codes and familiar domestic space, etc.

The smooth-type spaces mentioned in the second paragraph and the patron’s psycho-geographical maps, revisited from the perspective of control society, now appear programmed so as to prohibit a truly free motion, like the striated gives way to a smooth that itself reproduces striation, or some combination of the two. On the cruise ship there is a passage between smooth and striated space that seems linked to control; as Deleuze writes (if we imagine consumerism as a sort of religion): “Thus the great imperial religions need a smooth space like the desert, but only in order to give it a law that is opposed to the nomos in every way, and converts the absolute” (A Thousand Plateaus, 495). If, in the case of cruise ships, the smooth space is planned by the forces that striate, forces who, according to Adorno, basically employ the cruise to reproduce conditions of capitalism, what does that say about the still potentially productive experiences of the travelers?

-Duncan Cooper

Deleuze, Gilles. “Postscript on Control Societies.” Negotiation 1972-1990. Trans. Martin Joughin. New York: Columbia UP, 1995. 177-82.

Deleuze, Gilles, and Felix Guattari. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Trans. Brian Massumi. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1987. 474-501.

Horkheimer, Max, and Theodor W. Adorno. Dialectic of Enlightenment. New York: Herder and Herder, 1972.

Sekula, Allan. “Fish Story.” Dismal Science: Photo Works, 1972-1996. Normal: University Galleries, Illinois State University, 1999. 42-54.